City Wall of Preussisch Holland

The cemetery register of the Jewish cemetery of Preussisch Holland (today Pasłek, Poland)
(by Bettina Müller)

The cemetery with an area of about 100 x 50 meters is one of the best preserved Jewish cemeteries in this area.
The State Archives Leipzig offers under the signature AS 3590-1 a list of the community members of the years 1851 to 1907 buried on the Jewish cemetery of Preußisch Holland.

Mazeva Erstine Wohl

1874 – with the introduction of the official civil status system – is the first time that births, marriages and deaths can be proven, before 1874 there are still civil status lists of the former Jewish communities for some places in former East Prussia, for Preußisch Holland these are only the deaths of the years 1817 to 1847. (….. cont. see below)

(Abbreviations: FN = footnote; o. G. = without date of birth, o. L. = without life data)

  • Alexander son of Zwi (38); o.G.; + 5607 [1847]
  • Aris; reserved (107)
  • Aris, Blanka (41), * 12.8.1863; + 14.9.1867
  • Aris, Jacob (17); * 3. [o. 8.]10.1790; + 6.3.1862
  • Aris, Jacob little son (72); o.L.
  • Aris Jacob little son (73); o.L.

Mazeva Jacob Aris

  • Aris, Johanna (104); * 1.4.1856; + 31.5.1900
  • Aris, Julius (105); * 16.10.1856 ; + 18.2.1902
  • Aris, Louis (106) ; * 8.11.1835 ; 7.4.1906
  • Aris, Meta (84); * 24.4.1879; + 7.10.1899
  • Aris, Pauline, nee Löwenstein (1); * 4.9.1834; + 24.2.1869
  • Aris, Rebekka, nee Hirschfeld (2); * 26.9.1834; + 18.11.1865
  • Aris, Simon (43); o.G.; no date of death
  • Aris, Therese, nee Kirstein (12); * 3.5.1799; + 21.7.1851
  • Aron son of Joseph’s (35); o.G.; + 19. Sh’vat 5591 [2.2.1831]
  • Bär son of Johseph’s (37); o.G.; + 10. Tewet 5606 [8.1.1846]
  • Chajim son of Nachmans (33); o.G.; + [illegible]
  • Cohn; 133 reserved
  • Cohn, Henriette, nee Aris (3); * 26.4.1834; + 19.10.1869
  • Cohn, Max (134); * 6.11.1869; + 26.2.1905
  • Cohn, Salomon (132); * 4.12.1832; + 16.3.1902
  • Flatow, Johanne, nee Jacoby (79); * 1.5.1822; + 25.12.1882
  • Flatow, Lina (57); * 28.10.1843; + 3.2.1894
  • Flatow, Seelig (32); * 21.12.1817; + 12.2.1870
  • Frümet [?] Tochter Jacobs (45); o.G.; + 24. Kislev 5606 [5.12.1844]
  • Fürst; 131 reserved
  • Fürst, Gerson (30), * 30.10.1815; + 24.2.1868
  • Fürst, Henriette, nee Flatow (56); * 22.3.1823; + 28.4.1891
  • Fürst, Johsef (31); * 28. Tishrei 5548 [10.10.1787]; + 14. Tamuz 5628 [4.7.1868]
  • Fürst, Veile, nee Laserstein (FN [1]) (29); * 24.2.1797; + 14.7.1869
  • Fürst, Simon (130); * 18.7.1845; + 30.9.1896
  • Gerber, Abraham; 92 reserved
  • Gerber, Doris, nee Grau (91); * 21.12.1841; + 24.2.1905
  • Goldstandt, Minna, nee Isacheim (27); o.G.; + 23. Tevet 5627 [31.12.1866]
  • Grau, David (20); o.G. + 2. Cheschwan 5627 [12.10.1866]
  • Grau, Lona (51); o.G.; + 21. Iyyar 5646 [26.5.1886]
  • Grumach, Lewin (101); * 13.1.1822; + 6.4.1890
  • Gutel, Gattin des Süsskind, Daughter of Zwi (47); o.G.; 29. Adar 5609 [23.3.1849]
  • Hirschfeld, Anna (89); * 8.12.1865; + 17.1.1905
  • Hirschfeld, Heimann (88); * 22.1.1835; + 17.5.1907
  • Hirschfeld, Hirsch (76); o.G.; + 25.5.1877; * 1796 Krojanke (Westpreußen),
  • Hirschfeld, Jacob (19); o.G.; + 28. Elul 5626 [8.12.1866]
  • Hirschfeld, Karoline (50); o.L.
  • Hirschfeld, Lewin (39); o.G.; + 13. Sivan 5611 [13.6.1851]
  • Hirschfeld, Rosa – Grabstätte 90 reserved
  • Hoffmann, Bertha, nee Hirschberg (137); o.L.
  • Hoffmann, Eduard (112); * 11.5.1839; + 5.3.1892
  • Hoffmann, Georg (70); o.L.
  • Hoffmann, Herrmann (71); o.L.
  • Isaksohn, J.B. (40); * Februar 1793; + 4.4.1871
  • Isenstein, Itzig (49); o.G.; + 20. Nisan 5634 [* 7.4.1874]
  • Jacob, Ernestine, nee Braunstein (5); * 17.12.1847; + 8.7.1879
  • Jacob, Rebekka (97); o.G.; + 2. Av 5644 [24.7.1884]
  • Jacobi, Gutel, daughter of Joseph (46); o.G.; + 20. Iyyar 5606 [16.5.1846]
  • Jacobsohn, Pauline, nee Löwenthal (52); * 1.8.1829; + [?]1.1885
  • Jacobsohn, Bendix (65); „77 Jahre alt“ [* 1830]; + 19.7.1907
  • Jontofsohn, Rebekka, nee Flatow (83); * 1814; + 19.10.1895
  • Jontofsohn, Salomon (113); * 15.11.1814; + 1.11.1893
  • Joseph Sohn Zewi’s (36); o.G.; + 5. Adar 5602 [12.2.1842]
  • Katz, Ida, nee Liedemann (6); * 25.12.1828; + 10.8.1869
  • Katz, Hirsch (16); o.G.; + 12.3.5621
  • Katz, Tobine, nee Conrad (7); o.G.; + 2.10.1869
  • Katzenfuß, Marie, nee Weinberg (108); * 6.8.1856; + 29.7.1883
  • Korn, Auguste, nee Lehmann (103); * 7.4.1816; + 28.12.1895
  • Korn, Fabian (102); * 23.9.1815; + 13.7.1893
  • Korn, Mindel, nee Weiss (25); o.G.; + 18.11.1865
  • Ladendorff, Ernestine, nee Hirschberg (75); * 15.10.1814; + 24.1.1876
  • Ladendorff, Hermann (127); * 27.1.1838; + 10.7.1897
  • Ladendorff, Meyer (18); * 23.12.1826; + 24.12.1863
  • Ladendorff, Ruben (74); o.G.; + 26. Adar 5635 [+ 5.3.1875]
  • Laserstein, Agnes (42); * 1.12.1857; 22.9.1860
  • Laserstein, Leopold (48); * 1.8.1828; + 10.7.1873
  • Lehmann, Hanna, nee Hammerstein (28); o.G.; + 26. Iyyar 5628 [18.5.1868]
  • Lehmann, Johanna, nee Bernstein (87); * 27.11.1850; + 29.8.1901
  • Lehmann, Seelig (114) ; * 15.1.1827 ; + 4.7.1893
  • Lesser, Ernst (122) ;  o.L.
  • Lesser, Louis (55); * 10.12.1825; + 20.4.1890
  • Lesser, Sara, nee Isacsohn (8); * 7.12.1826; + 4.6.1870
  • Lewin, Henriette, nee Jacob (86); * 5.11.1839; + 25.6.1901
  • Lewin, Jacob (63); * o.G.; + 26.4.1903
  • Lewin, Salomon (85); * 28.4.1852; + 15.9.1905
  • Lindenheim, Aron (77); * 8.2.1797 (FN [2]); + 17.5.1879
  • Lindenheim, Eduard (59); o.G.; + 10. Sh’vat 5663 [7.2.1903]
  • Lindenheim, Henriette, nee Löwenthal (58); * o.G.; + 14.2.1899
  • Lindenheim, Henriette (111); o.G., + Februar 1892
  • Lindenheim, Julie, nee Caspary (4); o.G.; + 24.3.1835
  • Löwenthal, Cäcilie (110); * 15.5.1860; + 30.12.1890
  • Löwenthal, Eva, nee Zredell (100); o.G.; + 11.6.1889
  • Löwenthal, Jacob (126); * 13.4.1820; + 10.10.1896
  • Lorenz, Minna, nee Stein (82); * 20.7.1859; + 15.5.1895
  • Marcus (69); further illegible, o.L.
  • Marcus, Aron; 116 reserved
  • Marcus, Helene, nee Jacob (115); * 29.11.1828; + 4.2.1900
  • Marcus, Johanna (96); * 21.1.1829; + 29.4.1882
  • Michaelis, Henriette (95); * 13.3.1838; + 8.10.1876
  • Michaelis, Sara, nee Wigdor (11); o.G.; + 9. Nissan 5622  [9.4.1862]
  • Müller, Sara, nee Loewinsohn (13); o.G.; + 9. Kislev 5613 [20.11.1852]
  • Nathan, Son of des Matitjahn (9), o.G., + 2. Nissan 5608 [5.4.1848]
  • Oppenheim, Moritz (21); * 18.10.5573 [Monday, 24. Tischri (September/Oktober) 1813], + 1.7.5627 [Monday, 28. Sivan (Mai/Juni) 1867]
  • Rawitscher, Henriette (81); o.G.; + 1. Sivan [11.5.] 1888
  • Ratischer, Marie (129); o.G.; + 9. Aw [4.8. oder 5.8.] 1900
  • Rehfeld, Berta, nee Ruhm (136); o.L.
  • Rehfeld, Jacob (135); * 14.4.1836; + 1.2.1907
  • Rehfeld, Johanna (24); o.G.; + 25. Tamuz 5623 [12.7.1863]
  • Rosenthal, Therese (98); o.G.; + 15.12.1885
  • Ruhm, Ruben (22); o.G.; + 25. Nissan 5628 [17.4.1868]
  • Stolpin, Jontof (61); * 22.8.1822; + 1.4.1902
  • Stolpin, Wilhelmine, nee Laudon (60); * 2.5.1832; + 17.9.1900
  • Weinberg, Abbo (FN [3]) (78); * 15.12.1814; + 11.11.1881
  • Weinberg, Rebekka, nee Moses (109); + 4.10.1893, 77 Jahre alt
  • Wittenberg, Lina, nee Rehfeld (138); o.L.
  • Wohl, Aron (99); o.L.
  • Wohl, Ernestine, nee Jacoby (93); * 7.10.1814; + 7.1.1873
  • Wohl, Simon (94); o.G.; + 17.6.1875
  • Illegible (44)

[1] The maiden name is not mentioned in the cemetery register. It was taken from the still readable gravestone.

[2] Date of birth on the still preserved tombstone. The cemetery register erroneously mentions 1779

[3] From at least 1856 to 1868 cantor and rabbi

Cemetery Preussisch Holland

The present cemetery register is part of the collection “22310 Family-historical collections of the Reichssippenamt, Jewish personal records 1851-1907”. The index contains a total of 14 pages of registers as well as an alphabetic re-register with a total of 16 pages. The number of graves in the register totals 139. According to Jewish understanding, a burial site is the property of the deceased until he rises and must therefore not be leveled. The graves followed the direction of prayer, the dead were buried with their feet facing east (Jerusalem). Since the beginning of the 19th century, German inscriptions have increased more and more. As with the Christian churches, it was possible to reserve a burial place, as the cemetery register shows, especially for people who shared a bed during their lifetime, i.e. spouses or small siblings.

The tombs no. 10/14/15/23/26/34/53/54/66/80/121 are marked as “unknown”, the no. 117-120 and 123-125 as “unknown children’s graves”. No. 128/139 are reserved without naming. The number 62 contains an interesting curiosity: “Unknown prisoner. Robbers from Bojanow”, dates of life are not mentioned. No. 64 only mentions “prisoner unknown”.

The cemetery register itself is not sorted alphabetically, but in places it is also not chronologically clear, the graves are numbered. For a better and quicker overview of family-related slopes, an alphabetical sorting was carried out in the cemetery register, but the original grave number was noted in round brackets, so that it is also possible to recognize which related persons had been buried next to each other. Apart from the names of the deceased, the dates of life are recorded, but there are no places of birth throughout (occasionally the date of death was recorded in the form of the Jewish calendar, this has been noted and a conversion has been made. Nevertheless, it is certainly a good overview of the Jewish occurrence of names in the city – especially for those outside Germany with Jewish roots – and the reader will encounter the company names of the first immigrants who had been continuously resident in the city since the beginning of the 19th century. The Aris family appears in the register as the most prominent family on the basis of the frequency with which their names occur.

In a campaign of the Federation of Young East Prussians some young people travelled in 2003 under the motto: “Preservation of monuments in Prussian Holland – work against the patina of forgetting”, also to Pasłek, as the city is called today, in order to look after the cemetery there for two days with the help of a Polish youngster. Together they removed wild growth, tried to raise up fallen gravestones and put crushed stones together. The removal of anti-Semitic graffiti, however, proved to be very difficult and could not be completely removed.

Gravestones with German inscription, which were used more and more since the beginning of the 19th century in the course of assimilation in Jewish cemeteries, are available in more or less good condition from: Jacob Aris; Pauline Aris nee Löwenstein; Rebecca Aris; Seelig Flatow; Gerson Prince; Veile Prince; Goldbaum ?; Minna Goldstand; Lona Grau; Itzig Isenheim; Ida Katz; Tobine Katz nee Conrad; Minna Korn; Ernestine Ladendorff nee. Hirschberg; Ruben Ladendorff; Agnes Laserstein; Leopold Laserstein; Lehman; Sarah Lesser née Isacsohn; Salomon Lewin; Aron Lindenheim; Löwenthal; Moritz Oppenheim; Ruben Ruhm; Ernestine Wohl née Jacoby. The remaining gravestones are not very opulent and decorated with sparse symbols and ornaments. In principle, the remaining gravestones appear rather uniform and equable, which corresponds to Jewish tradition.

Mazeva Sara Lessner

(Original published as part of an article in the “Heimatbrief des Kreises Pr. Holland” Nr. 35 – 2018/2019)

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